There are many varieties and specifications of CNC machining centers in the machinery manufacturing industry. Only the structure is classified here. as follows:
1. Vertical machining center: refers to the machining center where the spindle axis is set in a vertical state. The structure is mostly fixed column type, the worktable is rectangular, and there is no indexing rotation function, which is suitable for processing discs, sleeves and plate parts. Generally, it has three linear motion coordinates, and a horizontal axis CNC rotary table can be installed on the workbench to process the spiral parts. The vertical machining center is convenient for clamping workpieces, easy to operate, and easy to observe the machining situation. However, the chips are difficult to remove during machining, and the height of the column and the tool changer are limited, so that parts that are too high cannot be processed. In the mold manufacturing and machining manufacturing industries, the vertical machining center has a simple structure, a small footprint, a relatively low price, and a wide range of applications.
Second, the horizontal machining center: refers to the machining center where the spindle axis is set horizontally. Usually there is a workbench that can perform indexing rotary motion. Horizontal machining centers generally have three to five motion coordinates. Commonly, three linear motion coordinates plus one rotary motion coordinate enable the workpiece to complete the remaining four except the mounting surface and the top surface after one clamping. Surface processing is most suitable for machining box parts. Horizontal machining center debugging procedures and inconvenient observation during trial cutting, inconvenient monitoring during processing, inconvenient parts clamping and measurement, but easy to remove chips during processing, is beneficial to processing. Compared with the vertical machining center, the horizontal machining center has a complicated structure, a large floor area, and a high price.
Third, gantry machining center: The shape of the gantry machining center is similar to that of the gantry milling machine. The spindle is mostly vertical. In addition to the automatic tool changer, it also has a replaceable spindle attachment. The function of the numerical control device is also complete. Multi-purpose machine, especially suitable for processing large or complex shapes, such as beams, frames, siding, etc. on the aircraft.